Impact of the ongoing Urban Development Missions in India
In the most recent decade, India’s attitude toward urbanization has experienced a worldview move, with urban arranging being brought to the bleeding edge of advancement policymaking. The continuous increase in the urban population in India draws an attention towards the quality of life of people residing in these areas. The quality of life depends on the existing infrastructure and the services provided by the city. For ensuring and upgrading this quality of life in the cities government introduces different policies, mission and programs.
The graph shows the growth of urban population because of the increase in the working population in the cities of India.
(Source: Population Estimates and Projections, World Bank.)
The list of such programs that are currently running in the urban areas are:
- JNNURM (Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission)
- Smart cities Mission
- PMAY (Pradhan Mantri Awaas Yojana)/ Housing for All
- Swachh Bharat Mission
- AMRUT (Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation)
- NUSP (National Urban Sanitation Policy)
- HRIDAY (Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana)
- NULM (National Urban Livelihoods Mission)
- National Urban Transport Policy
Above mentioned programs and urban missions and their impacts are discussed briefly below:
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission and AMRUT
JNNURM is the primary huge urban advancement program of the nation that has built up the establishment for enormous scale focal help to the urban sector. The scheme was intended to bring speculation up in urban foundation, assemble better city courtesies, guarantee all-inclusive access to fundamental utilities just as make reasonable homes for the urban poor, slum occupants and individuals of financially more fragile segments.
The JNNURM was subsumed under the mission AMRUT which covers infrastructure for water, sewerage, drainage, transport, and green spaces in 500 cities with a total outlay of Rs 500 billion over a 5-year period (AMRUT, 2015).
According to the data available on MoUHA 2019, the total number of DU completed under the project were 11,05,195 while 9,75,422 were occupied by the beneficiaries. The project shows a huge success in terms of the housing provided by the government while the impact of the mission is implied to be positive for the targeted sector. The impact has been huge on the masses. The budget released for BSUP and IHSDP for construction of houses 417Cr. While the 2lacs of the units remain unoccupied the same budget could have been used for providing the services to the underprivileged section. AMRUT also succeeded in tying down a pledge to changes from state furthermore, regional authorities, it was not intended to tie these governments to their responsibilities.
Smart Cities Mission
The smart city mission aims at creating 100 smart cities in India focused on urbanization and sustainability which also ensures basic amenities with the inclusion of technology. The smart city mission accentuates on financial improvement of urban focuses by making more occupations and upgrade in pay.
The mission was supposed to be completed by 2019-20 but which is now extended to 2022-23. The PPP mode being promoted in the mission which has led to the creation of more jobs in the market. The inclusion of the mission has led to better transport and infrastructure facilities and hence leading o the more requirement of housing. The impact on real estate has been positive. Funds worth Rs 500 crore will be discharged for the best 15 urban areas according to information discharged by Ministry of Urban Development.
PMAY (Housing for All)
The PMAY has four verticals Insitu Slum Rehabilitation (ISSR), Beneficiary Led Construction (BLC), Affordable Housing in Partnership (AHP), Credit Linked Subsidy Scheme (CLSS). The purpose of the scheme is to cover all the hosing sections of the society. These verticals are the subsidy given to the various sections of the society being EWS, LIG, MIG.
The projects launched in 2017, in the affordable housing sector were the 40% of the total residential projects launched in India. (Source: BankBazaar.com) this shows that there has been a raise in the standard of living of the people. The project’s component CLSS has led in the ease of getting loan. The project has not only led to the creation of employment opportunity and also has a positive impact on the real estate sector and industries related to it.
The National Urban Sanitation Policy was defined in 2008 which spread out the administration’s vision to give sterile and moderate sanitation offices for the urban poor particularly ladies just as tending to the difficulties with successful city sanitation plans.
This scheme was launched on 24th September 2013 by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (MHUPA), the plan is an occupation advancement program to lessen neediness and powerlessness of the urban poor family units by empowering them to get to profitable independent work and talented pay business openings in this way upgrading their employment. It additionally addresses the occupation worries of urban street vendors.
The projects AMRUT and Smart city both are executed with the local bodies and hence there was a shift of more power in the city level matters of the city to local bodies. While there was shift of power there was also need of the funds by the local bodies and the local bodies that had potential and resources of executing are doing well in the same missions while the other local bodies are getting aware of the different resource funding that can be introduced into the system for efficient working. While the projects gave the power and hope to the other sectors of the society for a better standard of living.