Green House Gas Protocol
The Climate Action Plan of a city focuses on the reduction of Green House Gas Protocol gases in different areas of implementation like transport, energy, solid waste
The main contributors of GHG are CO2, Methane (CH4), water vapors, Nitrous oxide which are natural pollutants while there are some synthetic pollutants like CFCs that are industrial or man-made. The greenhouse gases create a greenhouse effect by trapping some of the solar radiation making the atmosphere warm. As the Green House Gas play an important role in changing climate. So, the study of the same becomes important. Effect of each of these gases on the atmosphere and ultimately on the climate change depends upon the following three factors:
- The concentration of the gases in the atmosphere.
- The duration of the presence of gases in the atmosphere.
- The potential of the gases to impact the atmosphere.
Henceforth, to comprehend the over three impacts of the gases on the climate there must be a quantum of insights. An emanation stock of gases is readied which is the standard for following outflow patterns creating alleviation procedures and approaches and surveying progress towards meeting objectives. (Andrea Denny, 2015) The inventory provides comprehensive data of total emission of Green House Gas through man-made sources and the concentration of the other gases in the atmosphere. The inventory allows the comparison of the past data and the current rises in the temperature and hence allowing the cities to implement the strategies and policies to be more specific.
The preparation of the inventory would also lead to addition benefits which include more effective energy saving and cost saving methods and policies for the city. The reduction in the air pollution can also be done with the evaluation of the air polluting particles along with the Green House Gas.
So, the inventorization becomes a very important part of the process of forming policies and strategies for the mitigation of the climate change and forming a climate change action plan for the city.
Green House Gas reduction efforts observed in the city of Ahmadabad and its subsequent impacts.
Human Civilization increased the rate of global warming in the past few decades owing to its greed of natural resources. GHG emissions are a direct consequence of more electronic devices and more usage of vehicles emitting GHG gases. Ahmedabad in terms of climate change has seen very high temperature in past few years. And thus, to tackle the situation the Government of India launched a Heat Mapping Project through ISRO in 2012. As a result, the government with the help of other agencies created a Heat Action Plan to mitigate these effects of Climate Change and high Green House Gas Emissions.
Heat Action plan was implemented in 2013-14, wherein the major part of the policy included the structural consideration and public awareness:
(1) building public awareness of heat as a public health threat through community outreach; (Indian Institute of Public Health, 2014)
(2) initiating a simple early warning system with staged heat action levels based on temperature and forecast (Indian Institute of Public Health, 2014)
(3) building capacity among health care professionals to better recognize and treat
heat illness and vulnerability before they can progress to heat-related death. (Indian Institute of Public Health, 2014)
The latest heat action plan (2018) also talks about keeping the roofs colder by painting the roofs with white paint (limestone based), ceramic tiles to keep the roofs cold and reducing the temperature inside the buildings. Under the project with the help of MHT Mod roofs- made of coconut nut husks and paper waste have been installed in the low-income communities. This has been installed in more then 100 houses and successfully accepted (since 2017).
Green House Gas Emissions have also been kept in check by AMC through tree plantation drives across the city to increase the tree cover as well as mitigate the harmful effects of heat island formation and Climate Change. This also helped in reducing the particulate matter pollution ( PM10, PM2.5).
Ahmedabad has been trying to introduce Vertical Gardens on its Pillars since last 3 years but due to unfeasible circumstances has not been able to accomplish the same. This method would help reduce the GHG emissions and Carbon Footprint of the city by almost 20% in the next decade.
Also, as a pilot project Government of India (GOI) and Government of France have tied up to reduce the Green House Gas Emissions by Urban Transport by 3 cities in India (Kochi, Ahmedabad, and Nagpur) through sustainable transport.
These have been a significant steps but we require to make strict actions to protect our environment.
Andrea Denny, L. P. (2015). Local Greenhouse Gas Inventory Tools for Government Operations and communities. washington, DC.
Indian Institute of Public Health, G. (2014). Evaluation of Ahmedabad’s Heat Action Plan. ahemdabad.
innovations, S. e. (2009, AUGUST 27). Conducting a municipal greenhouse gas emmission inventory.